The case against HP Lovecraft

HP Lovecraft
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HP Lovecraft was a racist, an antisemite, and a white supremacist. And it’s time for Rhode Island to deal with those exclusive facts about the influential author that the state tirelessly lionizes.

Celebrated with walking tours, film festivals, a convention, and a bust in the Providence Athenaeum – which also devotes a sanitized page to the author on its website – HP Lovecraft is Providence and Rhode Island’s darling literary son (in a short field). In his work, he elevated the anxieties of a changing age into a vast and terrifying mythos. His themes and techniques were startling in their novelty and influenced many of the best-regarded and most successful horror, fantasy, and science-fiction writers of our time. His achievements, if they could stand away from their author, are significant culturally and literarily. But those achievements can’t stand away from their author. Their author was a racist, nationalist, and antisemite with a long paper trail and those achievements are everywhere found to be informed by the author’s bigotry, fear, and hate.

This poem is among the better-known examples of Lovecraft’s racism, but it is only superficially known: readers of this essay are encouraged to navigate to and make their own judgment about its virulence and intent. It was written by Lovecraft in 1912. And it was not peculiar for him. In countless letters he railed against African-Americans, immigrants, Jews, and other minority groups. “…The Negro is fundamentally the biological inferior of all White and even Mongolian races,” one such letter says. In another letter, Lovecraft described the discomfort of having to live among varying races in New York City:

“The organic things—Italo-Semitico-Mongoloid—inhabiting that awful cesspool could not by any stretch of the imagination be call’d human. They were monstrous and nebulous adumbrations of the pithecanthropoid and amoebal; vaguley moulded from some stinking viscous slime of earth’s corruption, and slithering and oozing in and on the filthy streets or in and out of windows and doorways in a fashion suggestive of nothing but infesting worms or deep-sea unnameabilities.”

That should evoke his fiction – and draw the clear line between it and his racism – without the aid of the writer of this essay. But that very horror he transposed directly into his fiction, no veils, no metaphors, no parables. “The Horror at Red Hook” eschews the fantastic beasts and monsters that seem to stand in for non-whites and immigrants in favor of those people themselves. The “horror” at Red Hook, it is discovered, are the “Syrians, Spanish, Italians, and Negros” of Red Hook, Brooklyn, where Lovecraft regretted to reside for a time. These teeming hordes of monsters with their “half-ape savagery” besiege the world but for the might of the standing Aryan culture.

Living in Red Hook was, for Lovecraft, like being “imprisoned in a nightmare.”

According to his wife, Sonia Greene:

“…Whenever he would meet crowds of people – in the subway, or at the noon hours, at the sidewalks of Broadway or crowds… These were usually the workers of minority races – he would become livid with anger and rage.”

Integration was a primary horror for Lovecraft. “…Anything is better than the mongrelisation which would mean the hopeless deterioration of a great nation,” he said. And nothing but “pain and disaster will come from the mingling of black and white.”

A later work, the poem “Providence in 2000 AD,” Lovecraft imagined the displacement of the white race by immigrants. The parallels should be clear: The protagonists of Lovecraft’s stories discover and confront repellent and conquering beasts that are stand-ins for the different races encountered by Lovecraft in the real world. The beasts, marvelous as they are, are constructions; the displacement, to his racist mind, is not. Lovecraft had the same nightmares during his waking hours among immigrants, African-Americans, and Jews.

In his antisemitic conspiracy theories, Jews wielded the New York aristocracy as a weapon against the Aryan race. He insisted “the Jew must be muzzled” before he could “degrade and Orientalize the robust Aryan civilization.” He sympathized with the “romantic and immature” worldview of fascists and nationalists. “I know he’s a clown, but God I like the boy,” he said of Adolf Hitler. Lovecraft’s antisemitism was so transparent and virulent that his Jewish wife felt compelled to confront him. He capitulated: She “no longer belonged to those mongrels,” he said.

His lack of sympathy for minorities extended beyond those under siege in Eastern Europe. He considered lynch mobs in the American south to be “…Resorting to extra-legal measures such as lynching and intimidation because the legal machinery does not sufficiently protect them.”

These are not the views of a man poisoned by the drink of the times. Lovecraft’s bigotry confounded many close to him, drew him into violent debates, and alienated him from literary circles. Nor are these examples like others: the curious antisemitism of Henry Miller, the fascism of Ezra Pound; Arlo Guthrie saying “fags” in “Alice’s Restaurant;” Lenny Bruce saying “are there any niggers here tonight?” Nor are those figures – excepting occasionally the Newport-connected Guthrie – honored so publicly in Rhode Island.

The World Fantasy Award has replaced the likeness of Lovecraft it used to honor its recipients, for the reasons above. It’s time for Rhode Island to follow suit and cease the endless honors bestowed upon this hateful and bigoted man whose character cannot be separated from his work. At the very least, the occasions and places with which we honor him should be utilized to also educate the observer with the truth of his character, that they might decide where the man ends and the work begins, and whether the latter reconciles the hideousness of the former. It should be decided that it does not.


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About GW Mercure 1 Article
GW Mercure is a writer and reader from Providence. He has been writing for publication since 2006.

47 Comments

  1. Thank you, Uprise, for publishing this; and thank you readers who help shape a long overdue dialogue by commenting and sharing.

    • Oh my giddy aunt. Of course he was racist, anti-Semitic, etc. He was the product of his time, and, most signicantly, his environment, as are we all. His father died of syphilis and he was raised by his mother, an obviously terrified and unstable person in her own right. Whether we want to admit it or not, all of our deepest core beliefs and fundamental principles are formed by our parents. In the case of Mr. Lovecraft, it’s particularly forceful, if you will, because he was not sent to school, had no kind of normal social interaction or chance to explore alternate ideas, and so of course he wholeheartedly embraced the opinions and beliefs of the few influential people in his life. On the other side of the coin, so to speak, through his work, he gave a voice to those of us who may not have otherwise had one, he inspired and influenced writers who otherwise may not have shared their gifts with us, and that would truly have been a shame. Any thinking person separates the wheat from the chaff, not just in a literary sense but in all avenues of life, and if you look at the deeper body of his work, which spans well beyond “The Horror at Red Hook,” you would see that the man’s politics were really the very least of the influences of his work. I maintain that he should continue to be honored, not just in Providence but everywhere ideas are welcome and weird, fantastic fiction is celebrated. Your article is an insult not only to Mr. Lovecraft, but anyone with half a brain, and is a complete waste of time and computer space.

      • Very well said, I would’ve been one of those individuals Lovecraft hated and feared so much (I’m Hispanic and a legal immigrant). I’ve done a lot of research on Lovecraft and find his writings, mythos and xenophobic lifestyle intensely interesting. His writings ooze with fear of the things he didn’t understand, I’m sure his writings would have been lesser without it.

      • Agreed! The author of this article is likened to the Taliban and Isis groups who try to erase history.

      • Oh good grief, he was damaged goods who hateful personality alienated his friends and stood out from his peers at the time. The fact that he parlayed his phobias into authentic horror can be accepted but his work cannot be accepted without acknowledging this. I have been a fan of his work and I still appreciate the more science fiction aspects of the myths. But I’ve grown up and now prefer other less phobic authors. Brian Stableford has written some amazing lovecraftian horror whilst owning the fact that these tales of cosmic horror were born out of a man with horrific failings.

        It is all very well to be contaminated by the bigotry of your times but an entirely other thing to be whole heartedly in favour.

        • I grew up in a black neighborhood in LA where my much older brothers’ friends would drink beer and smoke week and discuss Viet Nam and Lovecraft. I would listen In the shadows about their well formed opinions about almost everything and I learned then from them that Lovecraft was a weirdly talented but a deeply racist xenophobe. It was true then and still is true now.

    • If you eat a hamburger and it’s good.Youv don’t know who made it, or what they were thinking….well it was a good burger.

  2. I’m a fan of the “Mythos” that Lovecraft created and crafted. To me, one of the sad ironies of Lovecraft is that his fictional universe places all of humanity’s accomplishments as insignificant and ephemeral, present a vast and ancient history of the Earth and the galaxy, and yet he thought one of the human “races” superior to the rest. For me his fictional universe is an argument against racism not for it. And yet, he clearly would have disagreed with me.

    I was fine when the World Fantasy Award was redesigned. I applaud the idea of presenting the unedited truth of Lovecraft’s life and beliefs.

  3. I certainly don’t dispute Lovecraft’s overt racism and its centrality to his work. I would question to what extent he is widely known or appreciated in Rhode Island in the first place. My impression as a Rhode Islander for 20 years is that the state has slowly and somewhat belatedly figured out that there is this guy Lovecraft from whom a small amount of money is to be made as a niche tourist element. If anything, Providence lagged the rest of the world in the Lovecraft boom.

    For most residents of Providence, the discussion at this point would go roughly like this: “You know how someone painted tentacles on telephone boxes and stuff around the city. As it turns out, that’s a reference to an author who lived on the East Side 100 years ago who has become kind of famous, but really he was a racist jerk, so never mind.”

  4. Y’all are so bored. People constantly talk about Lovecraft’s ardent racism here in Rhode Island. Even at the Lovecraft Arts and Sciences store. Its mentioned in the same sentences that praise him. This article does nothing to advance any sort of narrative about racism in the country. All it does is point out that which has been pointed out. It also fails to mention his change-of-heart on these views towards the end of his life.

    People are people. Nobody is perfect, as evidenced by this poorly written article.

    • Agreed!! What happened to journalism? Everything seems to blatantly tell us what to hate or be upset about. Even if it is an author that is nothing but bones & dust today. Not really anything new offered in this article except, “Rhode Island should be pissed H.P. happened to live there.”

    • K, your comment is a perfect summary of the times Lovecraft lived in and was influenced by. Sadly, the 3os were extremely racist times and his opinion on the subject was disturbingly common. If a child grows up in a racist environment with no guidance to overcome that influence, the result will most often be a racist adult. The only reason we know he was racist, at least most of his life, is because he was a writer. His books and stories are no less masterful because of his attitude.

  5. The funny thing is that if it wasn’t for articles like this, almost nobody would know of Lovecraft’s racial preferences! We celebrate Lovecraft the author, not Lovecraft the racist. We celebrate him because he gave us a wonderful universe that puts into perspective how small we are, and not because of whatever ideas, wrong or right, he had about different races in his time.
    “Cases” like this one are just vengeful rants hoping to hurt someone who cannot defend himself. You are just switching one intolerance for another one, and that is just sad.

    • I don’t think that’s the case at all. If you pay any attention while reading his work, it’s pretty obvious. I could tell he was a racist when I first started reading his stories in high school. That being said, I fundamentally disagree with judging historical figures through the lense of our modern sensibilities. Yeah, his racial attitudes were bad, but millions of his contemporaries held equally bad views.

  6. Great author, great mythos, who cares about his politics. Stop trying to poison the culture by trying to judge the past by today’s standards.

    • What I’m reading isn’t an attempt to contextualize Lovecraft, but to quietly sweep the ugliness, the venom, and hatred of the era under the rug. I’m reminded of the 2011 controversy regarding an edition of Huckleberry Finn which was printed with its fangs removed: its 219 racial slurs replaced with the much less impactful word “slave”. To cover up or to whitewash the unsavory portions of history is both dishonest and irresponsible. Without confronting the demons of our predecessors, we give those same evils the license to creep back in and prey on future generations who were not given the tools to resist that evil by being exposed to it. Lovecraft was a time-capsule. He was a personification of his era — an era in which eugenics was taught in universities and various “enlightened” societies all hopped on the ethnic cleansing bandwagon.

      This is a horrible misunderstanding of the importance of denying historical revisionism. I am most incensed that this article hangs below an image of (what I can only assume is) a group of women dressed in Handmaid’s Tale cosplay. Atwood made a point of stating that nothing in her novel is simply imagined: all of the awful, horrendous, dystopian misery was taken from some of the most painful and distasteful chapters in human history. I’m sorry if this chapter of New England’s past is not as triumphant or inspirational as Nantucket’s crew of free black whalers under captain Absalom Boston.

      And should Lovecraft be commemorated? Should a writer with fans on all the continents of the Earth, whose stories have inspired multiple generations of writers, artists, musicians and filmmakers be remembered? Why should this foolish question even need to be posed! Again to Atwood; the American literary community had, for generations, callously dismissed all forms of genre and speculative fiction as hackery without so much as reading a single paragraph. Following Lovecraft’s death, Derleth and Random House began feverishly printing and distributing his work, as well as that of other hacks and their hackery and quietly campaigning, decade over decade, for the simple right of writers to write whatever they please. The late-20th century growth of acceptance for genre and speculative fiction — the very thing which gave Atwood the creative and commercial freedom to write and distribute “Handmaid” — is a domino that was set in motion by Lovecraft and his writing. Shame on anyone who would throw him aside at the expense of the generations who were able to succeed in the landscape carved by his passing.

      Yes, hold him up. Yes, put him on a pedestal and remember him, and remember all the bad that went with that good.

      And finally, on a tangent: are you the same person you were 5 years ago? How about 10? Of course not. People are fluid, and dynamic, and will shift into new forms as they proceed to the grave. Lovecraft grew from a fanatical conservative to a progressive socialist in the years between his juvenile period and his early death from cancer. This shift is reflected not only in his letters, but in his work, and is best crystallized in his autumnal masterpiece “At the Mountains of Madness” wherein the narrator overcomes his first reaction of hatred towards the ancient alien Old Ones, and comes to grips with his growing empathy towards them.

      “After all, they were not evil things of their kind. They were the men of another age and another order of being. Nature had played a hellish jest on them – as it will on any others that human madness, callousness, or cruelty may hereafter dig up in that hideously dead or sleeping polar waste – and this was their tragic homecoming. They had not been even savages-for what indeed had they done? That awful awakening in the cold of an unknown epoch – perhaps an attack by the furry, frantically barking quadrupeds, and a dazed defense against them and the equally frantic white simians with the queer wrappings and paraphernalia … poor Lake, poor Gedney… and poor Old Ones!”

  7. Maybe we should ban his books or dig up his corpse & scream at it. I don’t see the actual purpose of lecturing everyone about a dead man that we know was a racist & have all known it for years. Please stop monetizing manufactured outrage. It only serves to make everyone hate each other more. Remember when reading books was fun? Remember when people minded their own business & didn’t tell others what to be upset about?

  8. I get the anger over the ugliness that was Lovecraft’s hatred of non-white people but it should really be through a lens of reflection. The man clearly had mental issues, of which both his parents died from different forms of, one syphilis. The man had no formal education, essentially learned about the outsideworld through his grandfather’s library which were primarily about 18th century European gentleman. The man was surrounded by death at an early age and its noted the monsters he wrote about were inspired by nightmares he had when he was 5. Is it really shocking that the man both detested and was horribly afraid of everything outside of his immediate surroundings?

  9. Lovecraft was so racist and xenophobic, the guy who wrote Conan the Barbarian asked him to tone it down a bit.
    He’s still one of my favorite authors, but more for his enduring mythos than the man.

  10. Lovecrafts views have always been readily available for those who bothered to look. No one looks because they just like his fiction and don’t care about his politics, having their own already. This article is a cheap shot by a writer who wants a bigger byline. Lovecraft is dead now. So is this “article”.

  11. Oh my God, shut up. Not everything is something for you to politicize and a new cause for you to be outraged by.

  12. Who cares. This has been known for decades, and tirelessly talked about since. This article isn’t breaking any new ground, or even remotely revealing anything new. It’s articulate trite. Furthetmore, Lovecraft wrote some awful stuff about people he didn’t know or relate to. But, did he actually do anything to anyone that was racist? I doubt it. In fact, i highly doubt his thoughts and words held anyone back in life whatsoever. Read his horror, enjoy it, and get over it.

  13. It was 1912. Not 2012. Stop trying to hold those from 100 years ago to the standards of today.

  14. I think more people would be surprised if you didn’t know he was a racist/bigot. It’s not new news. The guy was screwed up! little to no social interaction growing up, extremely sheltered etc the list goes on. But it was also this fear of the unknown that made his writing what it is. Mind you he died relatively unknown (at the time) it’s not like he became rich with his writing. It became popular after his death and as mentioned inspired a long lasting genre that is synonymous with the culture. Does that mean we are all inherently racist ? Of course not!

  15. Calling Lovecraft out for being racist…so imaginative.

    He was an isolated and bizarre person who echoes the thoughts of his mentally I’ll mother. So rather than trying to erase it as you suggest, I’d take the path of Leslie Klinger and understand that his bigotry “powers the stories…this sense that he’s alone, that he’s surrounded by enemies and everything is hostile to him”.

    Don’t pretend he wasn’t racist. But as Alan Moore said “Perceive Howard Lovecrafy as an almost unbearably sensitive barometer of American dread”.

    This topic has been covered so many times that it’s a nonissue. Love the stories but despise the man.

    This article isn’t brave or edgy. It’s an attempt to capitalize on the divisive landscape of Western culture. This won’t spark a meaningful conversation because it isn’t modern. A real conversation needs to be had but your target is long dead.

  16. My question is does it matter that he was racist and a bigot? sure some of that might come through in his work but is it influential? does it cause others to take up the same view and become racist and bigoted? For years we’ve heard that Lovecraft was responsible for the idea of cosmic horror, that humans and all their plights are insignificant in the face of the vast Unknowing of deep space and the universe. I’ve only read a few of his works and I haven’t detected an overt sense of racism in them at least not yet but the heart of the message in his stories is about fear usually about horror it does not inspire me to become bigoted or racist towards others but instead it stokes the flames of my imagination about monsters and gods and ancient civilizations. Perhaps these were born out of a fear and racism the he experienced. This article is mostly an opinion your opinion that his Works to not be separated from the faults of his character what’s that I say can you not enjoy your movie that had Kevin spacey in it? Even if it was your favorite movie before he became disgraced? Can you not enjoy the philosophies of Frederick Nietzsche? What about Mel Gibson before he went on his drunken try a dove anti-Semitic hatred of the Jews? People love horror and fantasy more than they care about politics or racism shining a light on this man’s long list of character flaws it’s not going to make people stop reading his works are celebrating things he did. You could go to an art gallery and admire hundreds of works of beautiful art but I bet you wouldn’t stop for one second to consider the artists and whether or not they’re good people cuz I’d be willing to bet a vast majority of them aren’t.

  17. Yeah I’ve known about his racism for years… I didn’t know how extreme or was though.
    He also clearly wasn’t playing with a full deck.
    He was not an attractive man and he knew it–and was plagued with health problems most of his life.

    I won’t sing his praises but I’m going to have trouble reading his stuff now thinking every hobgoblin was a non-Aryan race that he hated.
    Yuck!

  18. I came to this article not to be “educated” about what is a well known fact, but to comment to the “author” about his sad, pointless grandstanding in a sad effort to generate traffic to his writing. I was pretty happy to see how many people beat me to the punch. Yeah, a dude who was raised by civil-war era parents and relatives was racist. Super surprising. Enjoy his amazing works for what they are… timeless horror tales worthy of celebration.

  19. I’m getting so sick of articles popping up and saying this. It’s pretty well-known that he was racist. Nobody is breaking any ground by writing an article to point this out. The thing that always bothers me, is nobody seems to really acknowledge very often that his works seem to kind of change later is his life and show that he was maybe getting past some of it. not in a way that you would want him to fully, but better than he was in his earlier life, and especially considering a time that he grew up in, I think the improvement in his later works show that he was growing as a person.

    Besides, the universe he built is amazing and we still have amazing writers working on it now. Board games and books and video games and movies, his influence is everywhere.

    And you can’t tell me that you’ve never heard a story about a celebrity being a piece of crap to someone and then you still go watch a movies. Yeah people are bad, but that doesn’t mean we can’t separate their art from their personal life.

  20. I won’t piggyback on the excellent comments already left by people who observed his history, but this article, like many articles before and I’m sure will continue to be written, achieves very little and dampers true progression by anchoring his life’s work (and others) on “the current standard” of society. I’m very glad you wrote this article, it reaffirms my skeptism of modern journalism. May your efforts drown in the boundless oceans of upright morality. You have achieved nothing prole.

    • Leo, you’re absolutely right. Do you know how many old movies and TV shows (old as in the 1990s) I’ve seen recently and thought “Ooooooh, that joke didn’t age well.” Happens all the time. Hell, in Spider-Man 2002, Spider-Man makes gay jokes at a professional wrestler to insult and aggravate him. Not up to today’s standards, but nobody is calling Sam Raimi a homophobe

  21. The other interesting point not mentioned in this article is that while he was decidedly racist in his written work, all contemporary accounts suggest that he was unfailingly kind to all he actually met in life, or indeed corresponded with. A curious case, as he might himself have said. And decidedly flogging a dead shoggoth.

  22. “it’s time for Rhode Island to deal with those exclusive facts about the influential author that the state tirelessly lionizes.”

    Show me where the state lionizes his character. I’ll wait.

    There’s a difference between recognizing a guy can spin a good scary yarn and admiring a guy for his virtue.

    If you really insist on having both, your artistic world will be greatly short changed. Some of the greatest artists are reprobate, racists, pedophiles, misogynists, ne’er do wells, addicts and drunks. It’s possible to admire their art without admiring their character. In fact, it’s advisable.

  23. Yeah, so……

    It’s foolish to expect ideological purity from anyone. He was a creepy dude writing. Creepy stories. His racism is well known. The stories and their effect on the arts is profound. Have some tolerance for eccentricity.

  24. Oh no, someone from a hundred years ago was racist back when that kind of thing was common. As a native American, all I can say is who cares? Andrew Jackson was racist and caused the Trail of Years, yet no one is rallying to have him removed from the $20 bill. No one is protesting Columbus day, even though he was both directly and indirectly responsible for Mass murder. On a side note, I think the Confederate status should have stayed up, because it’s part of our history. Same thing with the Custer memorial, to remind us of the bad parts of history that we may be reminded of our shame.

    They’re not celebrating his racism, they’re celebrating an entire horror genre that continues to inspire people to this day.

    I don’t condone his racism, but I love his works because I view them in the light they were meant to be viewed in. Jordan Peele said he wouldn’t hire white actors, which is racism, but again no one complains about that. I bet you if Lovecraft was a minority, the racist and xenophobic undertones would be dismissed.

    So, if you dislike Lovecraft for that, then fine. But you don’t get to say what we should and shouldn’t celebrate as long as double standards continue to exist.

  25. I don’t think he would have imagined such horrors if he were not a paranoid, agitated, fragile person, who felt utterly alien himself. I think it’s his fundamental misanthropy that filled the creation of the mythos.

    Don’t apologize for him that he’s a product of his time: his friends were like, “Damn, man, you’re racist AF. Chill out.”

    I think he’s an interesting case of art requiring the artist to be a terrible person.

  26. Lovecraft was a horribly misguided man who learned some acceptance through love and support from his friends and eventually his Jewish wife Sonia, and unfortunately, just as he was learning to accept others he died. He grew up completely sheltered from the world and didn’t know any better, and that’s what separates him from a neo-nazi. Neo-nazis are shown better yet they reject acceptance, Lovecraft was shown better once he began to come out of his shell and he learned better despite not being fully converted to the side of love and acceptance before he died. I’m a non-binary pansexual socialist, so trust me when I say social justice is important to me, but when it comes to the likes of Lovecraft, instead of cancelling a man who has been dead for over a century, let’s just appreciate what he left behind and what we can do with it as artists and writers ourselves. There was once a neo-nazi punk band called Skrewdriver whose vocalist died in a car wreck (good riddance) but they had a xenophobic song called Invasion that an all black hardcore band called Negro Terror later did a cover of, but instead of keeping the xenophobic message of the original song, they instead dedicate it to the rise in white supremacy since Trump, an “invasion” of Nazis, so to speak. While I really don’t think Lovecraft and neo-nazis are the same (as I already explained). My point is that some terrible people through out time have given us some really amazing works of art, music and literature and I personally prefer to separate the art from the artist, and I’m not excusing Lovecraft’s racist bullshit, I just think he was racist for childish reason he was never able to fully grow out of before he died, as opposed to neo-nazis who again are presented with change and reject it because they’re hate mongers. I think Lovecraft was just (again) very misguided and would have only learned more acceptance in time judging by how much more open minded he became after marrying Sonia, at least I hope he would’ve learned more acceptance.

  27. I agree on Lovecraft but you’re wrong about both Columbus day and confederate monuments. People DO protest Columbus Day because he’s painted as a hero in grade schools and that’s just wrong. Kids should know the truth about Columbus and it should instead be a day in memorial of the indigenous people who were mercilessly slaughtered. As for the confederate monuments: The “it’s our history” argument is bullshit. Those monuments were built in celebration of the Robert E. Lee’s atrocities and the South not wanting to let go of slavery. It’s history, yes, but it belongs in a museum. I mean imagine a town in Germany having a massive swastika or Hitler monument in celebration of him committing genocide, I’d imagine you’d understand if the public wanted that torn down.

  28. There’s nothing so predictable as the outrage of white racism when it’s called out. “Who cares, it was the 1930’s everyone was a virulent racist, Hitler lover who approved of lynching!! Shut up I love his books!” I can only imagine the same exact excuses made 50 years from now. Never changes.

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